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Antioxidative and anticarcinogenic activities of methylpheophorbide a, isolated from wheat grass (Triticum aestivum Linn.).

gnpl20.v029.i24.coverMethylphophorbide a (MPa) has been isolated from the ethanol extract of the wheat grass plant. Its antioxidative efficacy is evaluated by hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and reducing capacity which are significantly up regulated in comparison with aqueous extract of the plant. The compound shows iron-binding capacity where the Fe2+ binds with MPa by two types of binding patterns with dissociation constants 157.17 and 27.89. It has antioxidative and cytotoxic effects on HeLa and Hep G2 cells. The cancerous cell survivability decreases with increasing concentration of MPa. These findings have provided evidence for the traditional use of the wheat grass plant in the treatment of cancers, oxidative stress and iron overloaded disorders.

Nat Prod Res. 2015 Mar 18:1-4. [Epub ahead of print] Das P1, Mandal S, Gangopadhyay S, Das K, Mitra AG, Dasgupta S, Mukhopadhyay S, Mukhopadhyay A.

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Wheatgrass Research | Advances in treatment of ulcerative colitis with herbs: From bench to bedside.

world-journal-of-gastroenteUlcerative colitis (UC),an idiopathic inflammatory disorder in the colon, has become a clinical challenge, owing to the increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The conventional treatments for UC including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, induce remission in only half of patients. Meanwhile, the treatments often come with serious side effects which can be life-threatening. Herbal medicine, one of the most common traditional Chinese medicine modalities, has been introduced for centuries into clinical treatment of many human diseases such as infections and functional disorders. Recently, the potential effectiveness of herbs has been suggested as the treatment of UC, as shown by a variety of clinical trials and experimental studies. The herbs reported in the literature include aloe vera gel, butyrate, tormentil extracts, wheat grass juice, and curcumin. In the review, bioactivity of the herbs and their involvement in UC treatment are discussed.

Wan P, Chen H, Guo Y, Bai AP.
World J Gastroenterol
Oct 21, 2014; 20(39): 14099–14104.

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Wheatgrass Research | Photodynamic therapy using chlorophyll-a in the treatment of acne vulgaris: A randomized, single-blind, split-face study

jaadBackground

Chlorophyll-a is a novel photosensitizer recently tested for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

Objective

We sought to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of chlorophyll-a photodynamic therapy used for acne treatment.

Methods

Subjects with acne on both sides of the face were included. Eight treatment sessions were performed over a 4-week duration. Half of the face was irradiated using a blue and red light-emitting diode after topical application of chlorophyll-lipoid complex. The other half underwent only light-emitting diode phototherapy. The lesion counts and acne severity were assessed by a blinded examiner. Sebum secretion, safety, and histologic changes were also evaluated.

Results

In total, 24 subjects completed the study. Facial acne improved on both treated sides. On the chlorophyll-a photodynamic therapy–treated side, there were significant reductions in acne lesion counts, acne severity grades, and sebum levels compared with the side treated with light-emitting diode phototherapy alone. The side effects were tolerable in all the cases.

Limitations

All the subjects were of Asian descent with darker skin types, which may limit the generalizability of the study. A chlorophyll-a arm alone is absent, as is a no-treatment arm.

Conclusions

We suggest that chlorophyll-a photodynamic therapy for the treatment of acne vulgaris can be effective and safe with minimal side effects.

Byong Han Song, MD, Dong Hun Lee, MD, Byung Chul Kim, MD, Sang Hyeon Ku, MD, Eun Joo Park, MD, In Ho Kwon, MDemail, Kwang Ho Kim, MD, Kwang Joong Kim, MD
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Volume 71, Issue 4, Pages 764–771, October 2014

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Wheatgrass Research | Acute toxicity test of a natural iron chelator and an antioxidant, extracted from Triticumaestivum Linn. (wheat grass).

Netaji-Subhas-Chandra-BoseTriticum aestivum (wheat grass) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. Previously the purified compounds and crude extract of T. aestivum were established to have iron chelation potency and antioxidant activity. So it is necessary to evaluate the toxic properties of any compound isolated from plant extract to prevent any untoward side effects. The aim of this study was to determine the acute oral toxicity level of our purified compounds, i.e. mugineic acids and methylpheophorbide a., and crude extract of T. aestivum, on Swiss albino mice at dosage of 2000 mg/kg for a period of 14 days using the organisation for economic co-operation and development guidelines 423. There was no mortality. No change in behavioural pattern, clinical signs, body weight and blood biochemistry profile were observed. Kidney and liver showed normal histo-pathological architecture. Hence, the oral administration of compounds and extract of T. aestivum did not produce any significant toxic effect on mice. Thus we may conclude that the extract can be utilised for pharmaceutical formulations as iron chelator and antioxidant agent for various diseases.

Das P1, Mukhopadhyay S, Mandal S, Chakraborty A, Pal A, Sarkar NK, Mukhopadhyay A.
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Cancer Research Institute
Park Street, Kolkata 700016
West Bengal , India.

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Wheatgrass Research | The role of iron-induced fibrin in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease and the protective role of magnesium.

frontiers-in-human-neuroscienceAmyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has recently been challenged by the increasing evidence for the role of vascular and hemostatic components that impair oxygen delivery to the brain. One such component is fibrin clots, which, when they become resistant to thrombolysis, can cause chronic inflammation. It is not known, however, why some cerebral thrombi are resistant to the fibrinolytic degradation, whereas fibrin clots formed at the site of vessel wall injuries are completely, although gradually, removed to ensure proper wound healing. This phenomenon can now be explained in terms of the iron-induced free radicals that generate fibrin-like polymers remarkably resistant to the proteolytic degradation. It should be noted that similar insoluble deposits are present in AD brains in the form of aggregates with Abeta peptides that are resistant to fibrinolytic degradation. In addition, iron-induced fibrin fibers can irreversibly trap red blood cells (RBCs) and in this way obstruct oxygen delivery to the brain and induce chronic hypoxia that may contribute to AD. The RBC-fibrin aggregates can be disaggregated by magnesium ions and can also be prevented by certain polyphenols that are known to have beneficial effects in AD. In conclusion, we argue that AD can be prevented by: (1) limiting the dietary supply of trivalent iron contained in red and processed meat; (2) increasing the intake of chlorophyll-derived magnesium; and (3) consumption of foods rich in polyphenolic substances and certain aliphatic and aromatic unsaturated compounds. These dietary components are present in the Mediterranean diet known to be associated with the lower incidence of AD and other degenerative diseases.

Lipinski B, Pretorius E.
Frontiers In Human Neuroscience. 2013 Oct 29;7:735. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00735.

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Wheatgrass Research | Antigenotoxic properties of chlorophyll b against cisplatin-induced DNA damage and its relationship with distribution of platinum and magnesium in vivo.

Journal-of-Toxicology-and-EThe chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin (cDDP) is widely used to treat a variety of solid and hematological tumors. However, cDDP exerts severe side effects, such as nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and bone-marrow suppression. The use of some dietary compounds to protect organs that are not targets in association with chemotherapy has been encouraged. This study evaluated the protective effects of chlorophyll b (CLb) on DNA damage induced by cDDP by use of single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assays. Further, this investigation also determined platinum (Pt) and magnesium (Mg) bioaccumulation in mice tissues after treatment with CLb alone and/or in association of cDDP (simultaneous treatment) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). All parameters were studied in peripheral blood cells (PBC), kidneys, and liver of mice after administration of CLb (0.2 or 0.5 mg/kg of body weight [b.w.]), cDDP (6 mg/kg b.w.), and the combination CLb 0.2 plus cDDP or CLb 0.5 plus cDDP. Pt accumulation in liver and kidneys was higher than that found in PBC, while DNA damage was higher in kidneys and liver than in PBC. Further, treatment with CLb alone did not induce DNA damage. Evidence indicates that genotoxic effects produced by cDDP may not be related to Pt accumulation and distribution. In combined treatments, CLb decreased DNA damage in tissues, but the PT contents did not change and these treatments also showed that CLb may be an important source of Mg. Thus, our results indicate that consumption of CLb-rich foods may diminish the adverse health effects induced by cDDP exposure.

Serpeloni JM1, Batista BL, Angeli JP, Barcelos GR, Bianchi Mde L, Barbosa F Jr, Antunes LM.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 2013;76(6):345-53. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2012.755485.

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Wheatgrass Research | In vitro Studies of Iron Chelation Activity of Purified Active Ingredients Extracted from Triticum aestivum Linn. (Wheat Grass)

Netaji-Subhas-Chandra-BoseObjective:

Seven to eight days germinated plants of Triticum aestivum (wheat grass) are a rich source of vitamin A, C, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulphur, cobalt, zinc and protein. Traditionally the aqueous extract of T. aestivum was reported to be used as a health tonic in folk and ayurvedic medicine. We previously reported that aqueous extract of T. aestivum was found to reduce the blood transfusion requirement in iron overloaded Thalassemia and Myelodysplastic syndrome patients. Our objective was to extract and purify active ingredients from wheat grass and study their mode of action in stabilizing hemoglobin level in those patients.

Design and Method:

Active ingredients of wheat grass were extracted and purified by cation exchange column chromatography followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. In vitro experiments with phenylhydrazine treated red blood cell hemolysate were carried out before and after treatment of purified fraction of T. aestivum to study iron chelating activity.

Result:

Purified fraction of T. aestivum treated red blood cell showed significant inhibition of free reactive iron production and formation of thio-barbituric acid reactive substances when compared to desferrioxamine treated hemolysate.

Conclusion:

Iron chelating activity of purified fraction of T. aestivum, an inexpensive, easily available source, is very promising for further clinical trial and development of oral iron chelator drug for Thalassemia, Myelodysplastic syndrome and other iron overloaded diseases.

Priyabrata Das, Ashis Mukhopadhyay, Soma Mukhopadhyay, Jayasri Basak
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Cancer Research Institute, 16A Park Lane, Kolkata-700016, West Bengal, India

Suvra Mandal
National Research Institute for Ayurvedic Drug Development, Kolkata-700091, West Bengal, India

Bikas Chandra Pal
NIPER, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, India

Raghwendra Mishra, Debarati Mukherjee, Manoj Kar
N.R.S Medical College & Hospital, Kolkata-700014, West Bengal, India

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Inhibition by wheat sprout (Triticum aestivum) juice of bisphenol A-induced oxidative stress in young women.

S15687864For health of future generation, fertile young women should be monitored for exposure of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Among EDCs, bisphenol A (BPA) is suggested to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) which play an important role in pathologies of female diseases such as endometriosis. On the other hand, previous studies suggested that sprouts of wheat (Triticum aestivum) have antimutagenicity and antioxidant activity. We performed the 2 weeks intervention of wheat sprout juice (100ml/day) to investigate its effects on BPA-exposure and -oxidative toxicity in young women (N=14, age=24.4±4.0). Geometrical mean of urinary BPA levels was 1.81 (GSTD, 4.34)μg/g creatinine. We observed that irregular meals significantly increased levels of urinary BPA approximate 3 times (p=0.03). In addition, we found BPA-induced oxidative stress is correlated with levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) or malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (p=0.18 or 0.03, respectively). We also observed a continuous reduction of urinary BPA during the wheat sprout intervention (p=0.02). In summary, our data suggested potential detoxification of wheat sprouts on BPA-toxicity via antioxidative and interference of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME)-mediated mechanisms in young women.

Mutat Res. 2011 Sep 18;724(1-2):64-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.06.007. Epub 2011 Jun 28.
Yi B1, Kasai H, Lee HS, Kang Y, Park JY, Yang M.

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Wheatgrass Research | Administration of Triticum Aestivum Sprout Water Extracts Reduce the Level of Blood Glucose and Cholesterol in Leptin Deficient ob/ob Mice

agrisType 2 diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. In order to control the type 2 diabetes mellitus, anti-hyperglycemic effect of Triticum aestivum L. water extracts (TAWE) was investigated in 7 week old male diabetic C57BL6/J-ob/ob mice. For the experiments, the diabetic animal model ob/ob mice and non-diabetic animal model lean mice were divided into 3 groups: non-treatment control group (Control), and two experimental groups orally treated with 25 or 100 mg/kg/day dose of TAWE (TAWE-25 and TAWE-100, respectively). The lean mice were used as the non-diabetic normal control. TAWE was orally administrated for 6 weeks and the diabetic clinical markers, including blood glucose level, body weight, organs weight and insulin level were determined. The oral administration of TAWE-100 in ob/ob diabetic mice significantly decreased blood glucose level (78.4%) and body weight (11.9%) compared with diabetic control group. The weights of organs, including spleen, liver, kidneys, heart and lung were not different among groups, while the treatments of TAWE-100 in ob/ob diabetic mice significantly reduced blood total cholesterol (24.35%) and triglyceride (23.97%) levels compared with the diabetic control group. The levels of serum insulin and glucose tolerance were improved after TAWE-100 treatment in ob/ob diabetic mice.

Lee, S.H., Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Republic of Korea
Lim, S.W., Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Republic of Korea
Nguyen, Van Mihn, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Republic of Korea
Hur, J.M., Chong Kun Dang Healthcare Crop. Research Center, Dangjin, Republic of Korea
Song, B.J., Chong Kun Dang Healthcare Crop. Research Center, Dangjin, Republic of Korea
Lee, Y.M., Wonkwang University, Iksan, Republic of Korea
Lee, H.S., Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea
Kim, D.K., Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Republic of Korea

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Wheatgrass Research | Hypolipidemic effect of fresh Triticum aestivum (wheat) grass juice in hypercholesterolemic rats.

acta-poloniae-pharmaceuticaPresent study was aimed to elucidate hypolipidemic effect of fresh Triticum aestivum (common wheat) grass juice (GJ) in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia in rats and to investigate its role in cholesterol excretion. Hypercholesterolemia was induced experimentally in rats by including 0.75 g% cholesterol and 1.5 g% bile salts in normal diet for 14 days. Hypercholesterolemic rats were administered fresh Triticum aestivum GJ at the dose of 5 mL/kg and 10 mL/kg and the standard drug atorvastatin 0.02% w/v in 2% gum acacia suspension at the dose of 1 mg/kg for 14 days by gavage. Blood samples were collected after 24 h of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fecal cholesterol levels were estimated using standard methods. Fresh GJ administration at 5 mL/kg and 10 mL/kg resulted in dose dependent significant decline in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels in hypercholesterolemic rats. Further, in comparison to atorvastatin, GJ administration at the dose of 10 mL/kg resulted in comparable decrease of TC, LDL-C, TG and VLDL-C levels (p > 0.05). Fecal cholesterol excretion was significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced by Triticum aestivum GJ administration. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, triterpenoids, anthraquinol, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and sterols in fresh wheat grass juice. The results of present study revealed hypolipidemic effect of Triticum aestivum GJ in hypercholesterolemic rats by increasing fecal cholesterol excretion. Fresh GJ could have potentially beneficial effect in atherosclerosis associated with hyperlipidemia.

Kothari S, Jain AK, Mehta SC, et al.
Acta Pol Pharm. Mar-Apr 2011;68(2):291-294.

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